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Research into Nosema in honeybees is progressing but not enough is known about it to provide standard treatment recommendations.  In addition, known strategies may vary between N. ceranae and N. apis which we are unable to differentiate with light microscopy.  The following are resources to help you decide which management and treatment strategies are right for you.

Diagnosis results are reported as 'number of spores per bee'; it's understood that most northern colonies can tolerate up to 1 million spores per bee, though beekeepers should be aware and employ additional management strategies to control infection level.  Diagnosis of your bees will provide you information on the level of Nosema infection your colony may have.  Results will be reported in the following categories:

High = Greater than 5 million spores per bee

Medium = 2.1 million - 5 million

Low = 100,000 - 2 million

Detectable limit = 100,000

Nosema Research

Learn about current research regarding Nosema in honeybees.  Learn about how Nosema functions and affects bee health.

A Closer Look-Impact of Nosema Disease

Nosema Basics Pamphlet - Ontario Beekeepers Association

Nosema Fact Sheet - Cornell University

General Education & Additional Links -

Pollinator Gardens

Learn about which annuals and perennials are beneficial to all bees as well as other pollinators such as humming birds.

Pollinator Plans for Northern New England Gardens - UNH Cooperative Extension

Pollinator Garden Fact Sheet (PDF) - UNH Cooperative Extension

Nosema Management

Learn about management strategies and treatment options for Nosema based on our current understanding of the disease. 

Wintering Bees in Cold Climates - Cornell University

Acetic Acid Fumigation - Univ. of Guelph

Equipment Irradiation Info - Montgomery (PA) County Beekeepers' Association

USDA Bee Lab

Learn about he USDA Bee Research Laboratory in Beltsville, MD, access their many resources and testing services.

USDA Bee Research Lab Website - Beltsville, MD

Additional Diagnostic Resources - USDA Bee Research Lab


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